The agitation following the partition of Bengal brought into prominence the rise of extremists which differed in some essential points from the moderates which dominates the National Congress. The fundamental difference between the two concern both the political goal and the method to adopt to achieve it. The difference between the Moderates and the Estimates remained under the surface at the Congress session of 1904. A split was narrowly averted at the Benaras Session Congress in 1905,over which Gokhale presided, by compromise.
The Calcutta Session next year (1906) showed that both the Moderates and the Limits war heading fast towards a complete breach. And this actually happened in the Surat Congress (1907). The Surat session was greatly disturbed by rowdyism, confusion and disorder and police had to intervene to restore order.
After the 1907 session, the Moderates decided to have no truck with the Extremists. The Congress aggression thus remained in the hands of the moderates, it however lost its popularity. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Babu Bipin Chander Pal- one the real leading personalities in the Indian politics during those years. They commanded a massive following throughout the country.
The period 1907-14 size series of terrorist movement in the country through underground organisations with their network all over the country. Revolutionaries tried to blow up the train in which the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal was travelling. Mr Allen, district Magistrate of Dacca, was shot at but somehow he could survive. An attempt on the life of Sir Andrew Frazor was made in November, 1908. The Hindu of Bengal burnt many places causing who rose to the government.
In March, 1908 riots broke out in Tinnevelly and many buildings were set on fire. Official records were consigned to flames. Such revolutionary activities generated a lot of anti-British feeling among the Indians and the Government launched a rigourous measure to eliminate terrorism in the country.
Reunion of the two wings of the Congress : The efforts, which were being made since 1907 to unite the two wings of the Congress, succeeded in the Lucknow session of the Congress in 1916. The extremist were admitted to the Congress at the session.
This was briefly followed by a Home Rule Movement spearheaded by Tilak and Mrs Annie Beasent. She had joined the Congress in the year 1915. The movement strengthened further because of self government and highlighted the necessity of involving the general public for attaining the goal of independence. The movement grew very popular among the younger generation and was an important step forward in the direction of preparing people psychologically to get ready for a fight to achieve freedom.