Shipping plays an important role in the transport sector of India’s economy. Approximately, 90 per cent of the country’s trade by volume (70 per cent in terms of value) is moved by sea. India has the largest merchant shipping fleet among the developing countries and ranks 20th amongest the countries with the largest cargo carrying fleet with 8.83 million GT as on 01.06.2008 and the average of the fleet being 18 years. Indian maritime sector facilities not only transportation of national and international cargo but also provides a variety of other services such as cargo handling services, shipbuilding and ship repairing, freight forwarding, lighthouse facilities and training of marine personnel, etc.
Coastal Shipping is an energy-efficient, environment-friendly and economical mode of transport in the Indian transport network and a crucial component for the development of domestic industry and trade. India, with her 7,517 km long costline studded with 13 major ports and 200 non-major ports provides congenial and favourable conditions for the development of this alternate mode of transport.
Aids to Navigation
Since Independence, India has made rapied growth in aids to Marine Navigation. From 17 Lighthouses prior to Independence, the present strength of aids to Navigation consists of 171 Lighthouses, one Lightship, one Loran-C Chain Stations, 59 Racons, 21 Deep Sea Lighted Buoys 01 wreck making and 22 installations under Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). To cater the needs of light stations in the islands and for maintaining the buoys, the Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lighships is maintaining three launches, one mechanised boad and two large ocean going vessels, M.V. Sagardeep-II ad M.V. Pardeep.
The Director General of Shipping is responsible for creation of the trained manpower required for the merchant navy fleet of the country. This national obligation is being met through the Government training institutes and a number of other approved training institutes in the private sector. The importance of organised training was recognised in the year 1927 when the Training Ship “Dufferin” was established. Since then many highly skilled Indian seafarers have been trained in India who have earned commendable reputation at home and abroad.
The four training institutes, which were established by the Government are:-
- Trainingn Ship ‘Chanakya’ which conducts
- Three years B.Sc degree course in Nautical Sciences under the University of Mumbai
- Pre-Sea training course for Deck Cadets.
- Marine Engineering and Research Institute (MERI), Kolkata which conducts four years degree course in Marine Engineering under Jadavpur University.
- Marine Engineering & Research Institute (MERI), Mumbai conduct
- one year Training Marine Engineering Course for graduate Mechnical Engineerings and
- Three-year B.Sc. degree course in Martime Sciences (polyvalent degree) under the University of Mumbai
- LBS College of Advance Maritime Studies & Research, Mumbai, conducts alomst 46 post-sea training courses for serving Marine Officers.
In addition to the above, there are about 124 training institutes in the private sector approved by the Director General of Shipping, imparting pre-sea and post-sea training in various disciplines.
Shipping Corporation of India Limited
The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd (SCI) was formed on 2nd October 1961. The present authorised capital of the Company is Rs. 450 crore and paid up capital is Rs 282.30 crore. The status of SCI has been changed from a private limited company to Public limited from 18 September 1992. The SCI was conferred ‘Mini Ratna’ status by the Government of India on 24 Feburary 2000. At present, the Government is holding 80.12 per cent of share capital and the balance is held by financial institutions, public and others (NRIs, Corporate Bodies, etc.). SCI signed Memorandum of Understanding with the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways, Government of India on 27 March 2008.
On 8th March, 2007, SCI was awarded MOU Excellence Certificate for the year 2004-05 and 2005-06 by the Government of India, Ministry of Heavy Industry and Public Enterprises, Department of Public Enterprises. SCI was the winner of the best international solution award and the third annual HBSC global payments and cash management partnership award, which was posted in Bangaluru on 5th November 2007. The SCI won the “Shipowner/operator of the year 2007” at the seatrade middle east and Indian sub-continental award 2007, held in Dubai in November, 2007 SCI also won the “Shipowner of the year 2007” at Lloyds list Middle east and Indian Sub-continental award, held in Mumbai in November 2007
Cochin Shipyard Limited
Situated in the Western coast of India in the city Cochin, State of Kerla, Cochin Shipyard is the largest shipyard in the country. Incorporated in the year 1972, Cochin Shipyard can build ships upto 1,10,000 DWT and repair ships upto 1,25,000 DWT. The year has built varied types of ships including tankers, bulk carriers, ports crafts, offshore vessels and passenger vessels. The orders executed by CSL in recent past include carriers for M/s Clipper Group, Bahamas, firefighting tugs for M/s ATCO, Saudi Arabia and Platform Supply Vessels for M/s Deep Sea Supplies, Norway.
The yard is also a leading ship-repairer of the country and has repaired more than 1200 ships of all types. These include upgradation of vessels belonging to ONGC, periodical lay up repairs and life extension of ships of Navy and Coast Guard. The yard had been consistently achieving profits for the last several years.
Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers LTD. KOLKATA
The Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited was incorporated as a joint stock company in 1934, under the name M/s Garden Reach Worskhop Limited (GRW). The Government of India acquired the company in 1960. It was renamed as “Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited (GRSE)” on 01 January 1977.
The company builds and repairs warships and auxillary vessels for the Navy and Cost Guard. Its present product range includes corvettes, frigates, fleet tankers, patrol-vessels, fast attack craft, high technology ship brone equipment, portable bailey type steel bridges, turbine pumps for the agricultural sector, Marine Sewage Treatment Plants, Diesel Engines etc. “Mini-Ratna Status Category-I” was conferred on GRSE on 5 September 2006.
Hindustan Shipyard Limited, VISAKHAPATNAM
Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL), Visakhapatnam as set up in 1941 in the private sector and was taken over by the Government in 1952. In 1962, the shipyard became a central public sector enterprise. The shipbuilding capacity of the yard is 3.5 pioneer class vessels of 21,500 DWT each. The maximum size of vessel that could be built is 50,000 DWT.
HSL is the first shipbuilding yard in the country which was awarded ISO:9001 certification by Lloyds Register of Quality Assurance, London for international standard of quality assurance. For ship repairs, the yard has facilities such as modern dry dock, wet basin, repair shops, etc., and it can undertake repairs of submarine, tankers adn ships up to 70,000 DWT. HSL has an exclusive offshore platform construction yard capable of constructing two platforms per annum.
Hooghly Dock and Port Engineers Limited, KOLKATA
Hooghly Dock and Port Engineers Limited (HDPEL), Kolkata became a Central Publi Sector Undertaking in 1984. The company has two working units in Howrah District of West Bengal, one at Salkia and another at Nazirgunge. The installed capacity in shipbuilding is 1,100 tonnes per annum and in ship repairs 125 ships per annum. Apart from a dry dock and a jetty, it has six shipways. The yard is capable of constructing various types of ships (including passenger ships) and other vessels such as dredgers, tugs, floating dry docks, fishing trawlers, supply-cum-support vessels, multi-purpose harbour vessels, lighhouse tender vessels, barges, mooring launches, etc., and undertaking repairs of different types of vessels.