Basically, nationalism in India rise to meet the challenge of foreign domination. The very existing of a foreign rule help to the growth of a national sentiment among the people. There was also a clash between the British interest in India and those of the Indian people. The British has conquered India to promote their own interest and the ruled over her primarily with that objective in view. With the best of time, this was realised in India and the realisation brought unity in India against foreign rule. It was timely responsible for the growth of national movement to drive out the foreigners from the country. All classes of people in India joined at one stage or other the nationalist moment.
British domination of India generated certain forces as a result of its direct and indirect consequences which ultimately challenged the British Empire. One important affect of the introduction of Western culture in India was the growth of modern political concepts like nationalism, nationality, political rights etc. And it were political associations which helped in 19th-century for the nationalism.
|Pre-Congress Nationalist Organisations|
|Landholder’s Society||Dwarakanth Tagore||1830||Calcutta|
|Bangabhasha Prakasika Sabha||—||1836||Calcutta|
|Zamindari Association||Landholder’s Society||1837||Calcutta|
|Poona Sarvajani Sabha||Justice Ranade and others||1870s||Poona|
|British India Society||William Adam||1839||London|
|Bengal British India Society||—||1843||Calcutta|
|British India Association(Result of the merger of first two organisations)||Devendranath Tagore||1851||Calcutta|
|Madras Native Association||—||1852||Madras|
|Bombay Association||Jagannath Shankeshet||1852||Bombay|
|East India Association||Dadabhai Naroji||1866||London|
|National Indian Association||Mary Carpenter||1867||London|
|Poona Sarvajanik Sabha||Justice Ranade and others||1870||Poona|
|Indian society||Ananda mohan Bose||1872||London|
|India League||Babu Sisir Kumar Ghosh||1875||Calcutta|
|Indian Association||Anandamohan Bose and S.N. Banerji||1876||Calcutta|
|Madras Mahajan Sabha||G.S Aiyer, M Viraraghavachari, Anandacharlu, P Rangayya Naidu||1884||Madras|
|Bombay Presidency Association||Pherozeshah Mehta K T Telang , Braduddin Tyabji etc||1885||Bombay|
Factor Responsible for growth of Nationalism in India:
- Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of India : The British established the uniform, modern and highly centralised administrative, political and economic system in India. The generated a feeling of oneness among the people
- Socio-religious Reforms : The socio-religious movements in the 19th century, which brought out the cultural ideological struggle, played an important role in the evolution of an nationalism. These movements were progressive in character as the sort reorganisation of society on democratic lines.
- Racism of the British Administration : The racial discrimination practised by the British Administration made Indians conscious of national humiliation and resulted in feeling of oneness while facing British.
- Economic Exploitation : The destruction of ruler and local self-sufficient economy and introduction of modern grade and industries on all India level made India’s economic life a single whole.
- English Language and Western Education : English language gave a new and effective way of competition with educated Indians. It also made the Indian literature available to masses. This brought out the patriotic emotions among the Indian masses. The educated Indians feels the ideals of nationality, liberty and self-governance through reading the Liberal and radical thoughts of Rousseau, Voltaire, Mill, Bentham, Shelly and Milton.
- Role of Press : The English and press played a important role in mobilising public opinion, organising political movements and promoting nationalism. The Indian press advocated the cause of the local people which helped in the ruling social and political reforms and emotions among Indians.
- Contemporary Nationalist Movements :
- Development of new means of Transport and Communication : Development of new means of transport and communication made easier the integration of people living in different parts of the country.
The American Revolution of 1776, national liberation movements of Greece, Italy and Ireland in Europe, French Revolution of 1789, independence of Spanish and Portuguese colony in south America considerably inspired Indians.
|A Brief Survey of the Major Centres of the Revolt of 1857|
|Centre||Leaders||British Officials who suppressed the Revolt||Fate of the Leader|
|Delhi||Bahadur Shah, General Bakht Khan of Bareilly regiment||Nicholson, Lt Wiloughby, Lt Hudson||Bahadur Shah deported to Rangoon, Bakht Khan died in battlefied.|
|Lucknow||Befum Hazrat Mahal of Avadh||Colin Campbell||Escaped to Nepal|
|Kanput||Nana Saheb, Tantia Tope, Azimullah||Colin Campbell, Henry Havelock, Henry Lawrence||Nana Saheb escapted to Nepal, Tantia tope was hanged, Azimullah died of illness.|
|Jhansi||Lakshmibai||Hugh Rose||Died in battlefield.|
|Arrah||Kunwar Singh||William Tyler and Eyre||died of wound sustained in the fight|