Growth of extremism or militant nationalism: The closing decade of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of a new and younger group within the Indian National Congress which were sharply critical of the ideology and methods of the older leadership. These angry young men advocated the adoption of Swaraj as the goal of the Congress to be achieved by more self-reliant and independent method. The new group came to be called as extremist group. Causes for the rise of Extremism or Militant Nationalism:
- Understanding of the True Nature of British Rule : By is their studies and writings, the early nationalist leaders have exposed the true nature of British rule in India. They repeatedly prove by study Calcutta that British rule and its policies were responsible for decrease in economic growth of India and poverty. All this led to great anger among the youths.
- Discontent over the Council Act of 1892 : The political events from years 1892 to 1905 also disappointed nationalist and forced them to think of more radical politics. The Indian Council Act of 1892 was a completed disappointment. In 1898 law was passed making it offance to excite “feeling of this affection” towards the foreign government. In 1899, the number of Indian members in the Calcutta Corporation was reduced from 75 to 50. The 25 members who were eliminated over those persons who were the representatives of the people of Calcutta.
Even socially and culturally, the British rule was no longer progressive. Primary and technical education was not making any progress. The Indian Universities act of 1904 was seen by the nationalist as an attempt to bring the Indian universities under tighter official control and to check the growth of higher education.
- Increasing westernisation : The intellectual and emotional inspiration of the new leadership was Indian. The drain special from Indian spiritual heritage, they appealed to heroes of the Indian history and hope to revive the glories of ancient India. The writing of Bankim Chandera, Vivekananda and Swami Dayanand appealed to their imagination.
- Dissatisfaction with the performance of the Congress : The younger elements within the Congress were dissatisfied with the achievements of the Congress during the first 15 to 20 years and were disgusted with called and reactionary attitude of the government. They have lost all faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.
- International influences : Events outside Indian exercised a powerful influence on the growth of militant nationalism in India. The humiliating treatment to Indians in British colonies, especially in South Africa created and they British fillings. Further national movements in the Egypt, Persia, Turkey and Russia gave Indians new hopes and new inspirations. The rise of modern Japan after 1868 showed that a backward Asian country could develop itself without Western control.
- Militant Nationalism and revival of Hinduism : From almost the beginning, of the national movement School of militant nationalism represented by Rajnarain Bose and Ashwini Kumar Dutt in Bengal and Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar in Maharashtra had existed in the country. The most outstanding representative of the school was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, later popularly known as “Lokmanya Tilak“.
- Growth of Education : The growth of a patient in Indian increased the influence of Western ideas of democracy, nationalism and that radicalism. He educated Indians became the strongest advocates of military nationalism. The treatment given to them by the foreigners added to the bitterness. They were low paid. Many of them were unemployed. They felt very strongly the foreigners domination. There was a feeling in the country that self-government was necessity for the economic, political and cultural advancement of the country.
- Growth of self-respect : Leaders like Tilak and B.C pal preached the message of self-respect and asked the nationalist to rely on the connector and capacities of the Indian people. They called upon the people to build their own future by their owner efforts.
- Famine : The big famine occurred in India in 1896-97. It affected about 20 million people spread over in different parts of India. The British government’s apathy towards people’s sufferings created severe discontent among people of India. The failure to check plagues infuriated people to such an extent that Damodar Hari Chapekar shot dead Rand, the Commissioner of Poona.