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Governor Generals and Viceroys

India under Governor generals:


    Warren Hastings (1772-1785)
    Administrative reforms And of the dual systems; shifting of treasury froom Murshidabad to Calcutta.
    Revenue reforms Collection of revenue was taken over by the Company.
    Judicial reforms Zamindars were given judicial powers; establishment of civil and criminal courts in each district.
    Social reforms In 1781, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa for promotion of Islamic studies. This was the first educational institute established by the Company’s government.
    Impeachment Warren Hastings tendered his resignation in protest against the Pits India Bill in 1785. He was accused for the Rohilla bar; Nand Kumar’s murder; the case of the Chet Singh and accepting of bribes. His impeachment lasted for seven years from 1788 to 1795. He was exonerated for all the charges.
  2. Sir John Macpherson, (1785-1786)
    He held the post temporariily.
  3. Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
    Permanent settlement of Bengal The land was given on permanent basis to the zamindar in 1793, instead of giving it to the highest bidder each year. This system got prosperity to both the Company and zamindar had the cost of the common peasantry.
    Judicial reforms Reorganisation of the revenue courts; the reorganisation of the criminal courts; depriving the Collectors of the judicial functions; compilation of the Cornwallis Code.
    Police reforms Depriving zamindar of their police functions; establishment of the thanas
  4. Sir John Shore (1793-1798)
    He followed a policy of non-intervention.
  5. Sir Alured Clark (1798)
    He held the post temporarily.
  6. Lord Wellesley, (1798-1805)
    He is the famous for introducing Subsidiary Alliance system . He opened college to train the Company’s servants in Calcutta. That is why he is also called the Father of the Civil Services in India .
  7. Lord Cornwallis (1805)
    Pointed for another term, he however died very soon.
  8. Sir George Barlow (1805-1807)
    An important event was the Mutiny of Vellore in 1806 in which the Indian soldiers killed many English officials.
  9. Lord Minto I (1807-1813)
    His rule famous for a treaty with Shah of Persia and Treaty of Amritsar (1809) with Ranjit Singh. Recent Sir Charles Metcalfe to the court of Ranjit Singh.
  10. Marquess of Hasting (1813-1823)
    He was the first to appoint Indians to the highest Ops of responsibility. The first vernacular newspaper Samahar Patrika begin to be published during his time.
  11. John Adam (1823)
    He held the post temporarily.
  12. John Adam (1823)
    He held the post temporarily.
  13. Lord Amherst (1823-1828)
    Has reign is known for the first Anglo Burmese War (1824-26) and mutiny of Barrackpur (1824).
  14. William Bayley (1818)
    He held the post temporarily.
  15. Lord William Bentinck (1828-1833)
    Administrative and judicial reforms Abolition of provincial courts of appeal and circuit, power of the magistrate increased, appointment of Indians as judges, replacement of Persian by vernaculars and Scott language, introduction of the residuary system, Sardar Diwani Adalat at Allahabad; Codification of Laws.
    Educational reforms English accepted as the medium of instruction after the famous Macaulay’s recommendation; Medical colleges at Calcutta in 1835.
    Social reforms Abolition of sati in 1829. Suppression of thuggee in central India; banning of female infanticide; banning of human sacrifice; reform in the Hindu Law of Inheritance.
  16. Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-36)
    He held the post temporarily. He removed the restriction on the vernacular press.
  17. Lord Auckland (1836-42)
    Important events of his regime included the outbreak of first Afghan For and the signing of a Tripartite Treaty among the English, Ranjit Singh and Shah Shuja of Afghanistan.
  18. Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)
    His period is known for the end of the first Afghan war, annexation of Sindh to the British Empire (1843).
  19. William Wilberforce Bird (1844)
    He held the post temporarily.
  20. Lord Hardinge (1844-1848)
    The most important event of his featured his First Sikh War (1845-1846).
  21. Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)
    About Lord Dalhousie He was the youngest to hold the office of the Governor General. He is famous for the the Doctrine of Lapse . The second Burnese war, 1852, took place because of Lord Dalhousie’s desire to exclude all European power from Burma. The second Anglo Sikh War and did Sikh power and Punjab was annexed.
    Administrative reforms Separate Lieutenant Governor appointed for Bengal; Shimla made the summer capital.
    Military reforms Arillery Headquarters moved from Calcutta to Merrut; Army headquarters shifted to Shimla; formation of Gurkha regiments.
    Railways First railway line was led from Bombay to Thana, in 1853.
    Post and Telegraph Reforming the defects of the Postal System and linking all the important towns Telegraphically.
    Education Served Charles Woods despatch on Education (1854) recommended the setting up of universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. In 1853, competitive examination for the Indian Civil Services began.
  22. Lord Canning (1856-1858)
    Annexation of Avadh; enactment of Hindu Widow Remarriage Bill, 1857; establishment of universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay; the revolt of 1857 who were some of the important events during his post of Governor General.

India Under Viceroys :

  1. Lord Canning (1858-1862)
    Following the Queen’s recommendation in 1858, transferring the Government from the company to the British Crown, Lord Canning was made the first Viceroy of India. Important developments in his regime were as follows:
    Financial reforms Hey 5% income tax was imposed on all are links beyond Rs. 500 a year.
    Judicial reforms Penal code was prepared by incorporating the suggestions earlier made by the First Law Commission headed by Lord Macaulay. High courts were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras under the provisions of the Indian High Courts act of 1861.
  2. Lord Elgin Ist (1861-1863)
    The most important event of his time over the suppression of the Wahabi tribe of the fanatic Muslims inhabiting the North West Frontier.
  3. Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)
    An important event of this time was war against Bhutan in 1865. The Punjab and Oudh Tenancy Act, 1860, was enacted. Two famines hit India; first in 1800 in Orrisa and second in 1868-69 in Bundelkhand and Rajputana. A Famine Commission was set up under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Campbell .
  4. Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
    For the first time in my Indian history census was held in 1871. The college was setup and Ajmer to impart suitable education to the sons of the Indian princess. Subsequently, this college came to known as the ‘Mayo College”. And agricultural department was setup. In 1872, a convict Sher Ali stabbed him to death at Port Blair.
  5. Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)
    The main events of this period were: deposition of Gaekwad in 1874; the Kuka movement; visit of Prince of Wales; abolition of income tax; famine in Bihar and Bengal in 1873-1874.
  6. Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
    Main events of his time period were :

    1. Famine in 1876-1878; Famine Commission was appointed in 1878 headed by General Richard Strachey.

    2. The Delhi Durbar, January 1, 1877, was held to decorate Queen Victoria with the title Kaiser-i-Hind.

    3. The Vernacular Press Act, 1878 was passed, putting several curbs on the vernacular newspapers.

    4. Indian Arms act, 1878 forbade the Indian people from keeping or deeling in arms with the permission of the Government.

    5. Foundation of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College was laid by Lord Lytton in 1877 at Aligarh.

    6. Satautory Civil Service in 1879. It was also laid down that the candidates had to appear and pass the civil services examination which began to be held in England. The maximum age for these candidates were reduced from 21 to 19 years.

  7. Lord Ripon (1880-1884)
    Important events during Ripon’s stint as viceroy were as follows:-

    1. Repeal of Vernacular Press act, 1882.

    2. Resolution in 1882 for institution of local self-government in India.

    3. Constitution of the Hunter commission on education (1882).

    4. The maximum age of admission to civil services raised to 21.

    5. Introduction of the Ilber Bill which would authorize India judges to hear cases against the Europeans as well.

  8. Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)
    His period witnessed the third Anglo Burmese war which led to the accession of upper Burma. Three Tenancy Acts were passed to give greater security of tenure or to the tenants.
  9. Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)
    Major developments during his period are : enactment of second factory act; demarcation of the Indo-Afghan border (Durand Line); Second Indian council Act (1892).
  10. Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)
    A bubonic plague in Bombay in 1896 and sever draught in Bikaner and Hissar district were some of the important events of his period.
  11. Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
    Highlights of his period were as follows:

    1. Lord Curzon set up a Famine Commision.

    2. The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900, prohibited the sale of agricultural lands for its attachment in execution of a decree.

    3. Agricultural banks were established.

    4. In 1904, the cooperative credit societies act was passed.

    5. The Department of agriculture was established in 1901.

    6. He founded on agriculture research Institute at Pusa.

    7. Commission was appointed in 1901 to consider the problems of education.

    8. In order to preserve and protect ancient monuments of India, he passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act, and Archaeological Department was established in 1901.

    9. The setup of Police Commission under the Chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer in 1902.

    10. A Criminal Investigation Department was opened in each district. In 1901 the Imperial Cadet Corps was set up.

  12. Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
    His stint as viceroy is famous for the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 which provided for separate electorate to Muslims.
  13. Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)
    In the honour of King George V and Queen Mary of England, Coronation Darbar was held at Delhi. In 1911 the capital of country was announced to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. In 1912, Delhi became the new capital. When Lord Hardinge was heading a procession through the Chandi Chowk in his new capital, some extremist revolutionaries through a bomb burn him. The Viceroy himself escaped unhurt. The First World War broke out in 1914. In 1916, Lord Hardinge laid the foundation of the Benaras Hindu University. Madan Mohan Malaviya was the Founder-Chancellor of this university.
  14. Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)
    Enactment of the Government of India, 1919 (Montague-Chelmsfor Reforms) which introduced dyarchy in the provincess; enactment of Rowlatt Act (1919); the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919); and the beginning of the Non-cooperation Movement were some of the important events in his period.
  15. Lord Reading (1921-26)
    Held of the Non-Corporation Movement (1922); arrival of the Prince of Wales (1921); and outbreak of the Moplah Revolt (1921) was some of the events of his period.
  16. Lord Irwin (1926-31)
    The Viceroylty of Irwin is known for

    1. Appointment of Simon commission in 1928.

    2. Passing of the resolution for complete independence (purna smarajya) in 1929.

    3. Launching of the civil Disobedience movement.

    4. Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931;

    5. First Around Table Conference (1930).

  17. Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)
    Important events were :

    1. The second Around Table Conference, 1931 ;

    2. Restarting of the Disbodience Movement, 1931

    3. The communal award, 1932; the Poona act;

    4. Third Round Table Conference, 1932

    5. The Government of India Of 1935;

    6. Earthquake in Bihar on January 15, 1934.

  18. Lord Linlithgow (1936-44)
    Highlights of his reign were :

    1. Longest reign as viceroy of India

    2. Beginning of the Second World War.

    3. Coming into force of the Government of India Act 1935 with provinces going to elections.

    4. Arrival of the Cripps Mission.

    5. Beginning of the Quit India Movement,

    6. Great Famine of Bengal (1943)

  19. Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
    His period is famous for the Shimla conference, 1945; arrival of the Cabinet Mission, 1946; the Constituent Assembly boycotted by the Muslim League which launched the heinous “Direct Action Day” on August 16, 1946; the Intrim Government under Pt. Jawajarlal Nehru’s leadership; Attlee’s Declaration that his government was intended to hand over the Administration of India to her people before June 1948, even if no agreement was reached between the Congress and the Muslim League.
  20. Lord Mountabatten, (March 1947-June 1948)
    Declaration of third June, 1947; Indian Independence Act, Partition of the country between two independent states of India and Pakistan with Lord Mountbatten and Mr M.A. Jinnah as thier respective Governor generals.

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