|Area||1,30,058 sq km|
History and Geography: Tamilnadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early sangam classics throw historical references it is only from the Pallavas we pass to recorded history.
South India had remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita in whose reign the later Cholas under the Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of 11th century, Tamilnadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountacy over South India.
Even during the period of the tumultous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamilnadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the Southern peninsula. The composite Madras State was later reorganised and the present Tamilnadu was formed.
Tamilnadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka on west by Kerala, on east by the Bay of Bengal and on south by the Indian Ocean.