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Facts About Rajasthan

Area 3,42,239 sq km
Capital Jaipur
Population 5,64,73,122
Principal Languages Hindi and Rajasthani

History and Geography: Rajasthan, the largest State in India area wise prior to Independence was known as Rajputana. The Rajputs, a martial community ruler over this area for centuries.

The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3,000 and 1,000 BC, it had a culture akin to that of the Indus culture valley civilisation. The Chauhans who dominated Rajputs affairs from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, it were the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar. Other states were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818 protecting the interest of the princess. This naturally left the people discontented.

After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement. With the introduction of provincial autonomy in 1935 in British India, an agitation for civil liberties and political rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948) consisting of a fraction of states, then, slowly and gradually other states merged with this Union. By 1949, Major states like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer joined this Union making it the United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present State of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa joining it.

The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan, while Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh bound Rajasthan in north-east, south-east and Gujarat in south-west.

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