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Akbar (1556-1605) Facts
Akbar (1556-1605) Facts:
Though Humayun reconquered his empire, he was not destined to reap the fruits of his success. He fell from staircase of his library and died soon due to its effect.
The death of Humayun placed the responsibility of the kingdom over the younger shoulders of Akbar. Akbar was as under the protection of Bairam Khan(1556-60).
Akbar was crowned at Kalanaur at the age of 13 years. Bairam Khan, the tutor of the Prince, became the Wakil of the kingdom with the title of Khan-i-Khana and rallied the Mughal forces.
Second Battle of Panipat: Akbar’s earliest conflict was with Hemu, a general of Adil Shah. Hemu proceeded to Delhi with the Mugul Governor, Tardi Beg Khan, offered a feeble resistance and suffered defeat (1526). On receipt of the News of the all of the Agra and Delhi, Bairam Khan marched to meet Hemu. The two armies met at Panipat (fifth of November 1556). Hemu bought bravely but was defeated and Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra.
Akbar’s Political Compaigns
Akbar’s earliest compaigns were against Durgawa of Garh-Katanga (Gond & Rajput principalties) followed by Chittor
The two powerful forts of Rajasthan: Ranthambor and Chittor (gaurded by Jaimal) were captured by the Mughals.
Akbar’s Deccan campaign began with the siege of Ahmednagar (defended by Chand Bibi). Ahmednagar soon resurrected itself under the leadership of Malik Amber.
Akbar’s last campaign was against Asirgarh, resulting in the annexation of Khandesh (1601). Akbar conquered Qandahar in 1595.
Bhagwan Das (500 zat) amd Man Singh (7000 zat) enjoyed a privileged position in the Mughal court.
Akbar faced a rebellion in Gujrat in 1572, which was crushed and following which he built the Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri. Opened the fort of Aasirgadh with Gold keys.
Akbar’s first victory in Rajasthan was won without bloodshed. In 1562, he made his first pilgrimage to the mausoleum of the Sufi Saint, Sheikh Moin-ud-Din Chishti, at Ajmer. On the way, he received Raja Bhar mal of Ajmer who made his submission without fighting.
Akbar conquered Gujarat (1572-1573) and Bengal (1574-1576). In 1591, Akbar sent four missions to the rulers of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda, calling upon them to recognize his suzerainty and pay him tribute. Khandesh ruler offered his submission. Ahmednagar was captured in 1600. By 1595, Akbar’s armies had conquered Kashmir, Sindh, Orrisa, Central India and Qandhar.
Akbar’s Nine Jewels or Nav-Ratnas
Abdul Rahim : A celebrated Hindi and the scholar: remembered for a collection of dohas, Rahim Satsai and translation of Babarnama into Turki; conferred the title of Khan-e-Khana by Akbar.
Abdul Fazal : Known for Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari.
Birbal : Known for his humour and wits; original name Mahes Dass; died while fighting with the Yousuf-zai tribe in the north-west.
Faizi : Credited with the translation of Lellawati into Persian.
Hamim Human : A close friend of Akbar; Chief of Royal School or Pathasala.
Raja Man Singh : A great Rajput general; helped the emperor in the Battle of Halidghati and in the battle against the Afghans.
Shaikh Mubarak : A sufi; brain behind Akbar’s Mahzar
Tansen : Court singer of Akbar; known as sangeet samrat
Todar Mal : Known for his expertise in land revenue matters; his revenue policy was adopted by Sher Shah and Akbar.
Architectural development by Akbar
Building built by Akbar are : Agra Fort (1565), Lahore Palace(1572), Fatehpur Sikri, Bulan Darwaza and Allahabad fort (1583)
The architecture at Fatehpur Sikri is an excellent blending of Persian, Central Asia and various Indian (Bengal and Gujarat) styles. It is also known as Epic Poem in Red Sandstone.
Two unusual building at Fatehpur Sikri are Panch Mahal and Diwan-i-Khas
Panch Mahal has the plan of Buddhist Vihara.
The Jodhabai’s Palace, Diwan-i-Aam and Diwan-i-Khas are Indian in theri plan.
Buland Darwaja (built after Gujarat victory) formed the main entrance to Fatehpur Sikri. It is built in the Iranian Style of half dome portal.
He built the Jahangiri Mahal in Agra fort according to Hindu design based on Man Mandir
He also began to build his own tomb at Sikandara which was later completed by Jahangir