Transformation From Ancient Phase to Medieval Phase
Transformation from the ancient to mediaeval phases.:
Central factors that ultimately transformed the ancient Indian society into mediaeval society who was the practice of land grants. This practice came into being because of a serious crisis that affected the ancient social order. The crucial step to made the situation was too grand land to priests and officials in lieu of salaries and remuneration. Line grands became frequent from the fifth century A.D. According to this, the bramhmanas wire granted villages free from taxes.
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Trade and commerce: From the sixth century A.D. onwards, there started a sharp decline in trade. The decline of trade led to the decay of towns. In northern India, from eighth century A.D. onwards, there are one a period of stagnation and even of decline. The main reason for this was the setback to trade and commerce.
The decline in trade and commerce was due to collapse in the vast of the Roman Empire with which India has flourishing and profitable trade. The rise of Islam leading to the collapse of all empires, such as Sassanid (Iranian) Empire, also affected India's foreign trade, particularly the overland trade. As a result, there was a remarkable paucity of new gold coins in North India between the eighth and the 10th century.
However foreign trade and commerce in North India became to revive gradually from the 10th century onwards. Malwa and Gujarat benefited most from the revival of his trade. There was also the decline of internal trade which led to the languishing trade guild called shrenis and sanghas in north India.
Cultural development: In about the 6-7th centuries started the formation of cultural units, which later came to known in and as Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan,, Tamil Nadu etc.
The identity of various cultural groups is recognised by both foreign and Indian sources. The Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang mentions several nationalities. The Jaina books of the late eighth century notice the existence of 18 major peoples of nationalities.
Original scripts became more prominent in the seventh century A.D. and later. From Maurya to Gupta Times, although the script underwent changes, more or less the same script continue to obtain throughout the country. Thus, a person who has mastered the script of the Gupta age can read in scripts from different parts of the country in that period. But from the seventh century every reason came to have its own script, and hence one cannot read post-Gupta inscriptions found in different parts of the country unless he has the knowledge of regional scripts.
Education, Science and Learning: The system of education which developed in the earlier period continued without much change. There was no idea of mass education at that time. People learnt learnt what they felt was needed for their livelihood. Sometimes, temples made arrangements of education at the higher level as well. The main subjects studied were the various branches of the Vedas and grammar. Education of a more formal kind, with greater emphasis on secular subjects, continued to be provided at some of the Buddhist viharas. Nalanda in Bihar was the most famous of these. Kashmir was another important centre of education.
India made an important contribution to fines. In ancient times, religion and science were inextricably linked together. Astronomy made great progress in the country because the planets came to be regarded at Gods, and their movements became to be seen closely observed. Their study became essential on account of their connection with changes in seasons and weather conditions to which were important for agriculture activities. The science of grammar and linguistics arose because the ancient Brahma stressed that the every Vedic prayer and every mantra should be recited with the meticulous correctness. In fact, the first result of the scientific outlook of Indians was the production of Sanskrit grammar. In the fourth century BC Panini systemised the rules governing Sanskrit and produced a grammar called Astadhyayi.
By the third century BC, mathematics, astronomy and medicine begin to develop separately. In the field of mathematics the ancient Indians made three distinct contributions: the notation system, the decimal system and the use of zero. The earliest epigraphic evidence for the use of the decimal system is in the beginning of the fifth century A.D. The Indian notational system was adopted by the Arabs who spread it in the Western world. The Indians numerals were called Arabic in English, but the Arabs themselves called their numerals hindsa.
| Dynasties, There Rulers And Capitals
|| By Rulers
|| Capitals |
| Shunga||Pushyamitra Sunga ||Patliputra |
| Kanva||Vasudeva ||Patliputra |
| Satvahanas||Simuk ||Pratishthaan |
| Ilkshavaakus||Shrishanta Mulak || Nagarjun Konda |
| Kushanas||Kujulkhadphises ||Purusushpur/Peshawar |
| Gupta||Sri Gupta ||Patliputra |
| Hunas||Tormaan || Shakal or Syalkot|
| Pushybhuti||Narvardhan ||Thaneshwar/Kannauj |
| Pallavas||Simhavarman IV || Kanchi|
| Chalukya|| Jaisingh Siddharaja||Vatapi/Badami |
| Rashtrakuta||Danti Durga ||Manya Khait |
| Gurjara-Pratihara||Harish Chandra ||Gujarat |
| Gadhwaal||Chandradev ||Kannauj |
| Chauhaan||Vasudev ||Ajmer/Shakambhari |
| Chaindel||Nannuk or Dhanga || Khajurah or Kalinga|