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The Slave Dynasty (1206-1290)


                                   

   

Slave Dynasty Also called Mumluk or Ghulam Dynasty

All the Muslim rules that ascended the throne of Delhi after the death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 till 1290 were either themselves slaves or the descendants of these slave rulers. That is why the rulers belonging ot this dynasty are generally are known as the "Slave Rulers" or the Mameluk Sultans and the dynasty is called the "Slave dynasty. " Muhaammad Ghori had left Indian possessions in the care of his former slave, Qutub-ud-bin Aibek, who on the death of his master, severed his links with Ghazni and asserted his independence, becuase he use to give (harity.)

Qutubuddin Aibek: 1206-1210
  • A Turkish slave by origin, he was purchased by Mohammad Ghori who later made him his Governor. After the death of Ghori, Aibek became the master of Hindustan and founded the Slave dynasty in 1206. For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh (give of Lakhs.)
  • He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo
  • He constructed two mosques-Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi and Adhai din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer. He also began the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honour of famus Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhityar Kaki.
  • Aibek was great patron of learning and patronised writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of 'Taj-ul-Massir' and Fakhruddin,author of 'Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shah'
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Shamsuddin Iltutmish: 1211-1236
  • He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211 after deposing Aram Bakhsh.
  • He was a very capable ruler and is regarded as the 'real founder of the DelhiSultanate'. He made Delhi the capital in the place of Lahore.
  • He saved Delhi Sultanate from the wrath of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refuing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz was chasing.
  • He introduced the silver coin (tanka) and the copper coin (jital). He organised the lqta System and introduced reforms in civil administration and army, which was now centrally paid and recruited.
  • He set up an official nobality of slaves known as Chahalgani/Chlisa(group of 40)
  • He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibeks
  • He patronised Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of 'Tabaqat-i-Nasiri'.
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Razia Sultan: 1236-1240
  • Though Iltutmish had nominated his daughter Razia as the successor, the nobles placed Ruknuddin Firoj on the throne. However, Razia got rid of Ruknuddin and ascended the throne.
  • She was the 'first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India'
  • She was popular among the people but she was not acceptable to the nobles and theologians. She further offended the nobles by her perference for an Abyssian slave Yakut.
  • Soon after her accession, the governors of Multan, Badaun, Hansi & Lahore openly revolted against her. There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinad. Altunia, governor of Bhatinda refused to accept suzerainity of Razia. Razia accompained by Yakut marched against Altunia.
  • However, Altunia got Yakut murdered and imprisoned Razia. Subsequently, Razia married Altunia and both of them marched towards Delhi.
  • In 1240 AD, Razia became the victim of a conspiracy and was assassinated near Kaithal (Haryana)
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Bahram Shah: 1240-1242
  • After Razia, Iltutmish' third son Bahram Shah was put on throne by powerful turkish council Chalisa.
  • He was considered only as de jure ruler, while Naib-e-mamlakat (the regent) was de facto ruler.
  • Bahram Shah lost his life after failed attempt to assert his authority once on the throne.
Masud Shah: 1242:1246
  • He was son of Raknuddin but was disposed after Balban and Nasiruddin Mahamud' Mother, Malika-e-Jehan, conspired against him and established Nasiruddin Mahamud as the new Sultan.
Nasiruddin Mahamud: 1246-1266
  • He was the son of Iltutmish and was known as the Darvesi King as he was very pious and noble. He died in 1266.
Ghiyasuddin Balban: 1266-1287
  • Balban ascended the throne in 1266.
  • He broke the power of Chalisa and resorted the prestige of the crown. That was his greatest contribution towards the stability of the Sultanate.
  • To keep himself well-informed Balban appointed spies.
  • He created a strong centralised army to deal with internal disturbances and to cheek Mongols who were posing a serious danger to Delhi Sultante.
  • He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz
  • The Persian court model influenced balban's conception of Kingship. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi (Shadow of God)
  • He destroyed Mewati Rajputa brigandage in the doab, where forests were cut and forts built.
  • In his last days he overlooked Sultanate affairs due to dealth of his eldest and most loving son, Muhammad, and rebellion by his closed and most loved slave, Tughril. Muhammad died fighting Mongolians in 1285 and Tughril was captured and beheaded.
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Kaiqubad: 1287-1290
  • A grandon of Balban was established on the throne by Fakruddin, the Kotwal of Delhi who assumed high political authority during last days of Balban. But Kaiqubad was killed by the Khiliji family, which saw end of Slave dynasty and beginning of Khiliji dynasty at Delhi throne.



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