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The Pandyas



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The Pandyas Temple When Hieun Tsang visited the Deccan, the Pandya country was under the Pallavas. Of course, Hieun Tsang did not visit the Pandya country, The Pandya king, Sundar Pandya, was originally a Jaina, Later on, he adopted Saivism and is said to have followed a policy of persecution of the Jainas.

Official Language Tamil
Capitals Karkai Madurai
Government Monarchy
Preceding State Kalabhras
Succeeding State Delhi Sultnate

       The Pandya kings were constantly at war with Pallavas, Cholas and Ceylon. In the eleventh and the twelfth centuries, the Pandyas were compelled to owe allegiance to the Cholas. It was in the thirteenth century that the Pandya kingdom acquired independence and became one of the important powers of the Deccan. In the same country, Marco Polo visited Pandya country twice: once in 1288 and again in 1292. In his account, Kayal, the capital of the Pandya Kingdom was a prosperous port and a beautiful city. With the fall of the Tamil power at the hands of Malik Kafur in 1310, the Pandya kingdom also came to an end.

The Later Pandyas (1150-1350) entered their golden age under Maravman Sundara and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan, who expanded the empire into Telugu country, conquered Kalinga(Orrisa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka. They also had extensive trade links with Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. During their history, the Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the madurai Sultnate in the 16th Century.

The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature before the Christian Era. They controlled the pearl fisheries among the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

Other Kingdoms of South
Kingdom Capital Real founder
Western/Later Chalukyas Kalyani,Karnataka Tailap II
Kakatiyas (1110-1326) Warangal, Andhra Pradesh Prolaraja II
Yadavas (1187-1312) Devagiri,Maharashtra Bhillam V
Hoyasalas (1173-1342) Dwarasamudra, Karnataka Vittigadev 'Vishnuvardhan'
Note: The temple of Hoyasaleshwara at Dwarasamudra (Modern Halebid) is the greatest achievement of Hoyasala art.

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