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The English


                                   

   
East India Company Before the East India Company established trade in India, John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer, was the first Englishment who arrived in India in 1599 by the over land route, ostensibly for purpose of trade with Indian merchants.

     On 31st December, 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted a Charter to the Company named 'The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading in the East Indies' the right to carry on trade with all countries of the East. This company is commonly known as the English East India Company.
Chronology of English East India Company
1600 Establishment of English East India Company
1608 Captain William Hawkins visited the Mughal Court of Jehangir.
1609 Emperor Jehangir issued farman permitting the English to establish a factory at Surat.
1613 The English East India Company's factory was set up at Surat.
1615 Sir Thomas Roe was successful in obtaining two farmans from the Mughal Court confirming free trade with exemption from inland toll.
1616 The East India Company established its branch factory at Masulipatnam.
1632 The English obtained the Golden Farman with the right to trade in the kingdom of Golkunda for a fixed customs duty, from the Sultan of Golkunda.
1633 The eastern branch factory of East India Company was established in Hariharpur, Balasore.
1639 The local king of Madras(Now Chennai) granted the Company a lease.
1651 Nawab Shuja-ud-din of Bengal granted the English, the right to carry on their trade on payment of a fixed duty.
1662 King Charles II of England was given Bombay (Now Mumbai) as dowry after marrying the Portuguese princess
1667 The English obtained the royal farman to trade in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
1687 The English East India Company replaced its headquarters from Surat to Bombay.
1691 The Governor of Bengal gave the English Company Dastaks (Free trade passes) on the payment of a fixed duty.
1717 English obtained a number of trade concessions from the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar after the Emperor was cured of a painful disease by the English Surgeon William Hamilton.

For a few years, the English East India Company confined its activities to the spice trade with Java, Sumatra and the Moluccas. But in 1608 Captain William Hawkins came to the court of Jehangir with a letter from James I, king of England, requesting permission for the English merchants to establish in India. But due to vehement opposition of the Portuguese and the Surat merchants, Emperor Jehangir had to change his mind and Hawkin's mission failed. Next year, Jehangir issued a farman permitting the English to establish a factory permanently at Surat. In 1615, a British mission under Sir Thomas Roe succeeded in obtaining farmans from the Mughal Court confirming free trade without liability to pay inland toll. In 1632 the English obtained from the Sultan of Golconda the Golden farman granting them the right to trade throughout the kingdom of Golconda on payment of a fixed customs duty of 500 pagodas per year. This farman was renewed in 1634.

    The Company obtained from the Nawab Shaja-ud-din a farman in 1651 granting the English the right to carry on their trade on payment of a fixed duty of Rs. 3000 per year.

     In 1714, an Englishman John Surman was sent to Delhi Court for securing trading facilities for the company. He succeeded in obtaining from Emperor Farukhsiyar a farman in 1717, by which the Company was permitted to carry on trade in Bengal, Bombay and Madras free of customs duty. The Company was also permitted to mint its own coins. The Nawabs of Bengal, however, showed scant regard for the imperial farman .




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