The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526)
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Introduction : The defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 by Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori inaugurated an era of Muslim rule in India. The sudden death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 and his failure to specify succession procedures pitted his three slaves Tajuddin Yalduz, Nasiruddin Qubacha and Qutbuddin Aibek against each other.
The period between 1206 and 1526 in the Indian history is known as the "Period of the Sultan Rulers" . During this period, rulers belonging to five different dynasties- The Slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Sayyids and the Lodhis-ruled over India.
The Background of Delhi Sultanate
Mohammad Ghori's conquests became the nucleus of a new political entity in India-the Delhi Sultnate. This period can be divided into 5 distint periods viz
- First Muslim Invasion-Mohammad Bin Qasim's Invasion (712 AD) : Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded India in 712 AD and conquered Sindh which became the province of Omayyad Khilafat.
- First Turk Invasion-Mahmud Ghaznavi's Invasion (998-1030 AD) :Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions to India to enrich himself by taking away the wealth from India. In 1025 he attacked and raided the most celebrated Hindu temple of Somnath that lies on the coast in the extreme south of Kathiwar. The temple was destroyed in 1026 AD.
- Second Turk Invasion-Mohammad Ghori's Invasion (1175-1206 AD) :Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of the Muslim domination in India. He may be considered the founder of muslim rule in India.
- Reasons for the Sucess of Turks in India :
- Rajputs lacked unity and organisation;divided by rivalaries
- There was no central government
- Kingdoms were small and scattered
- Turks were better organised and took advantage of the lack of mutual cooperation among the Rajputs.
- The Slave dynasty (1206-1290)
- The Khijli Dynasty (1290-1320)
- The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
- The Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451)
- The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)