The Revolutionary Terrorist Movements
The Revolutionary Terrorist Movements:
The revolutionary terrorist movement was largely the outcome of the same set of causes which gave rise to the extremist wing in the national politics. Only the revolutionaries wanted quicker results and discounted the value of moderates and low-grade pressure.
The revolutionaries believed that the British rule was destructive of all that is worthwhile in national life- political liberties, religious freedom, morality and Indian culture. Though it is difficult to pinpoint the political philosophy of the revolutionary terrorist in different parts of India, but they are one common aim was freedom from the British rule.
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Revolutionaries activities in Maharashtra : The authors of Sedition Committee Report , 19 Latin opts owed the first indication of revolutionary movement in India in Maharashtra and among the Chitpavan Brahmins of the Poona district.
Following were the highlights of the revolutionary activities in Maharashtra:
- Assassination of Rand amd Ayerst by Chapekar Brothers:On June 22, 1897, Damodar Chapekar and Balkrishna Chapekar- famous as Chapekar Brothers-assissinated two British officials named Rand and Ayerst at Poona. The Chapekar brothers were disillusioned with the British administration for its indifferent attitude towards plague at Pune.
- In 1899, V.D. Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Savarkar organised a secret society Mitramela.
- In 1904, V.D. Savarkar organised the Abhinava Bharat, a secret society of revolutionaries.
- In 1909, Anant Kanhare, and activities staff Abhinava Bharat, assissinated Jackson, the judge of Nasik, Jacson had sentenced Ganesh Savarkar to deportation to Andaman on the charge of sedition. Ganesh' crime was that he had composed some patriotic songs.
Revolutionaries activities in Bengal :
The youth of Bengal found peaceful protests and political actions blocked and out of desperation they fell back upon individual action and the cult of bomb. They no longer believed that passive resistance could achieve the nationalist aims.
- In 1902, Pramatho Mitra, Jatindranath Banerjee and Barindra kumar Ghosh founded the Anushilan Samiti a secret society and promoting revolutionary activities.
- Decca Anushilan Samiti was founded by Pulin Das in East Bengal. Apart from Decca Anushilan Samiti, there were four other prominent samities in Mymensingh, Faridpur, Bakargunj and Burisal in East Bengal. These samities were: Swadesh Bandhav, Sadhna, Brati and Suhrid.
- In 1905, Barindra Kumar ghosh published Bhavani Mandir.
- In 1906, Barindra Kumar ghosh and Bhupendranath Dutta started the paper Yugantar, in which they had inspiredcountry's youth to begin an armed revoltion.
- On December23, 1907, the revolutionaries shot the magistrate of Dacca at the Faridpur railway station.
- In April 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at a carriage which they believed was occupied by Kingsford, the unpopular judge of Muzzaffarpur. Kudiram was hanged, while Prafulla Chaki shot himself dead.
Revolutionaries activities in Punjab and Delhi : And revolutionary activities, Punjab was not far behind Bengal. The following were the highlights of revolutionary activities in Punjab:
- In 1904, J.M. Chaterjee set up an organisation with Lala Hardayal and Sufi Amba Prasad to spread revolutionary activities in Punjab.
- After his release from jail in 1907, Sardar Ajit Singh began establishing revolutionary outfits in many places.
- In November 1908, the deputy superintendent of police of Layalpur and his orderly were assassinated. It was perhaps the first political incident of its kind in Punjab.
- In December 1909, a bomb was exploded in the house of the deputy collector of Ambala.
- Bombing of Lord Hardinge II and the Delhi Conspiracy Case : On December 23, 1912 Rash Behari Bose amd Sachin Sanyal threw bomb on Viceroy Lord Haringe II who was leading a procession in Delhi to celebrate the occassion of the city becoming the new capital of India. Lord Hardinge escaped with minor injuries but his attendant died on the spot.
13 people were arrested and tried in what is known as Delhi Conspiracy Case. Dina Nath, on of the arrested, became government approver under pressure. Four persons-Master Amir Chand, Awadh Bihar, Bal Mukund and Basant Kumar Biswas were hanged. Rash Behari Boase succedded in fleeing to Japan.
Revolutionaries activities in Europe :
- The revolutionaries are also established centres of activity abroad. In London the lead was taken by Shyamaji Krishnavarma, V.D Savarkar and Har Dayal.
- In 1905, Krishnavarma setup the India Home Rule Society popularly known as the India House; he also published a monthly journal The Indian Sociologist.
- On July 1, 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra shot deat the Assistant of the Secretary fo State Curzon Wyllie in London. Dhingra was sentenced to death on August 16, 1909.