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Priest King of Indus Valley There is no idea about the political organization of the Harappans. Perhaps the Harappan rulers were more concerned with commerce that with conquests, and Harappa was possibly ruled by the a class of merchants. Accroding to Amaur De Riencourt : "All the evidence points to a high degree of standardization and organization, implying strong centralisation with full control over production and distribution and probably a high efficient system of taxation". Evidences, like drainage, town planning, trading items suggests that there was an organisation like a municipal corporation to look after the civil amenities of the people.

Relation with other Civilizations
The indus valley civilization had a direct contact with many of the contemporary world civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Turkmenia, Oman and Bahrain. Harappan shells and carnelian beads have been found iin Mesopotamian royal burials, Mesopotamian clay tahlets refer to wood, gold and lapis lazuli coming from Meluha, the ancient Akkadian name for the Indus region. Harrapan Seals and other objects have been excavated in several Mesopotamian cities, such as Sura, Kish, Nippur and Ur. Evidence of a direct relationship between Harappan culture and Egypt in fragmentary and inconclusive. There are evidences of Harappan artfacts, such as etched carnelian beads and ivory, in Bahrain.

Decline and Disappearance
The Harappan culture flourished until about 1800 BC. Afterwards, the culture began to decline. There is no unanimity among historian on the exact reason of the decline of this urban civilization. Different theories of decline have been put forward by different scholars.
The following table gives the important theories and their profounders as regards decline of the Indus culture.

Decline of Indus Valley
Theorists Reasons of decline
Gorden Childe, Stuart Piggot External Aggression
H.T.Lambrick Unstable river system
K.U.R.Kenedy Natural calamity
Orell Stein and A.N. Ghosh Climate change
R. Mprtimer Wheeler Aryan invasion
Robert Raikes Earthquake
Sood and Aggarwal Dryness of river
Walter Fairservis Ecological imbalance




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