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Physics Facts



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Introduction to Physics

Physics Facts The word Physics comes from the Greek word fusis mini nature. Its Sanskrit equivalent is Bhautika i.e. the physical world. In Physics we attempt to explain diverse physical phenomena in terms of a few concepts and laws. The effort is to see the physical world as manifestation of some universal laws in different domains and conditions.

In Physics we study different forms of matter, their properties and the transformations that they undergo. It is a major signs dealing with fundamental constitutes of universe, the forces they exert on one another and the results produced by these forces. Physics a basic discipline in the category of natural sciences which also includes other disciplines like chemistry and biology.

Sometimes in modern Physics in more sophisticated approach is taken that incorporates elements of three states; it relates to the laws of symmetry and conservation, such as those pertaining to energy, momentum, charge and parity.

Major branches of Physics

Acoustics It is the study of production and properties of sound
Atomic Physics It is the study of structure and properties of an atom.
Biophysics It applies tools of physics to life processes
Cryogenics It is the study of low-temperature
Electrodynamics It is the analysis of relationship between electrostatic and magnetic fields.
Fluid Physics It deals with movement of liquid and gases
Mechanics It deals with behaviour of object and system to various forces.
Nuclear/Modem Physics It is concerned with structure and properties of atomic nucleus and their reactions.

Famous Scientists And Their Contributions
Technologies Scientific Principal(s)
Steam engine Laws of thermodynamics
Nuclear reactor Nuclear fission
Radio and television Propagation of electromagnetic waves
Computers Distal logic
Lasers Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (population inversion)
Production of ultra-magnetic fields Superconductivity
Rocket propulsion Newton's law of motion
Electric generator Farday's Laws of electromagnetic induction
Hydroelectric power Conversion of gravitational potential energy into electric energy
Aeroplane Bernoull's principle in fluid dynamics
Particle accelerator Motion of charged articles in electromagnetic fields
Sonar Reflection of ultrasonic waves

Four Fundamental Forces In Nature
There are four fundamental forces in nature that govern the diverse phenomena of the macroscopic and microscopic world. These different type of forces are:

  1. Gravitational force
  2. Electromagnetic force
  3. Strong nuclear force
  4. Weak nuclear force
The unification of different forces/domains in nature is a basic quest in physics, the gravitational force is the force of mutual attraction between any two object's by virtue of their masses. It is a universal force. The electromagnetic force is the force between charged particles. The strong nuclear force is the force between protons and neutrons. The weak nuclear force appears only in certain nuclear processes such as beta-decay of nucleus.

Fundamental Forces Of Nature

Forces -Relative Strength Ranges Operates Among
Gravitational force 10-38 Infinite All objects in the universe
Weak nuclear force 10-13 Very short, within nuclear size (~10-15) Elementary particles
Electromagnetic force 10-2 In finite Charged particles
Strong nuclear force 1 Very short, within nuclear size (~10-15)Nucleons

Name of the Physicists Years Achievements in unification
Issac Newton 1687 Unified celestial and terrestrial mechanics showed that the same laws of motion and the law of gravitation apply to both the domains.
Hans Christian Oersted
Michael Faraday
Showed that electric and magnetic phenomena are inseperable aspects of a unified domain; electromagnetism.
James Clerk, Maxwell 1873 Unified electricity, magnetism and optics; showed that the light is an electromagnetic wave
Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinber 1979 Showed that the week nuclear force and the electromagnetic force could be viewed as different aspects of a single electro-week force.
Carlo Rubia, Simon Vander Meer 1984 Verified Sperry mentally the predictions of that theory of electro-week force.

Names Major Contribution/Discoveries Country of Origin
Isaac Newton Universal Law of gravitation; Laws of Motion;Reflecting Telescope U.K
Galileo Galilei Lawof Inertia Italy
Archimedes Pricniple of Buoyancy; Principle of the lever Greece
James Clerk Maxwell Electromagnetic theory;Light and electromagnetic wave U.K.
W.K. Roentgen X-rays Germany
Marie Sklodowska Curie X-rays Poland
Albert Einstein Law of Photoelectricity;Theory of relativity Germany
S.N. Bose Quantum Statistics India
James Chadwick Neutron U.K.
Niels Bohr Quantum Model of Hyderogen atom Denmark
Earnest Rutherford Nuclear model of atom Denmark
C. V Raman Inelastic scattering of light by molecules India
Christian Huygens Wave theory of light Holland
Michael Faraday Laws of electromagnetic Induction U.K
Edwin Hubble Expanding Universe U.S.A
Homi Jehangir Bhabha Cascade process in cosmic radiation India
Abdus Salam Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions Pakistan
R.A. Millikan Measurment of electronic charge USA
Earnest Olando Lawrence Cyclotron U.S.A
Wolfgang Pauli Quantum Exclusion Principles Austria
Louis victor de Broglie Wave Nature of matter France
J.J. Thomson Electron UK
S. Chandrasekhar Chandrasekhar limit, structure and evolution of starts India
Lev Davidovich Landau Theory of condensed matter;Liquid Helium Russia
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Electromagnetic waves Germany
J.C. Bose Ultra short radio waves India
Hideki Yukawa Theory of Nuclear forces Japan
Werner Heisenberg Quantum Mechanics; Uncertainty Principles Germany
Victor Francis Hess Cosmic Radiation Austria
M.N. Saha Thermal Ionization India
G.N. Ramachandran Triple Helical Structure of Proteins India

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