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Mohammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD)



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Mohammad bin Tughlaq-tomb Tomb Mohammad bin Tughlaq is best remembered as a ruler who undertake a number of bold experiments, and showed a keen interest in agriculture. He was deeply read in religion and philosophy and had a critical and open mind. He had deep interest in philosophy, astronomy, logic and mathematics. he conversed not only with the muslim mystics, but also with the Hindu yogis and Jain saints such as Junaprabha Suri.

Muhammad bin tughlaq's Reforms:- He tried to introduce many administrative reforms. But most of these fails due to his impatience and lack of judgement.

  1. Taxation in the Doab: The Sultan made an ill-advised financial experiment in the Doab between the Ganges and Jamuna. He not only increased the rate of taxation but also revived and created some additional Abwabs or cessess. Although the share of the state remained half as in the time of Alauddin, it was fixed arbitrarily and not on the basis of actual produce.
  2. Transfer of Capital(1327): It appears that the Sultan wanted to make Deogir second capital so that he might be able to control south India better. Deogir was named Daulatabad. However, after a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad largely because he soon found that just as he could not control south India from Delhi, he could not control North from Daulatabad.
  3. Introduction of Token Currency(1330): Muhammad Tughlaq decided to introduce bronze coins, which were to have the same value as the silver coins. Muhammad Tughlaq might have been successful if he could prevent people from forging the new coins. He was not able to to do so and soon the new coins begain to be greatly devalued in markets.
  4. Khurasan Expedition: The Sultan had a vision of universal conquest. He decided to conquest Khurasan and Iraq and mobilized a huge army for the purpose. But his expedition proved a failure.
  5. Quarachi Expedition: This expedition was launched to counter Chinese incursions. It also appears that the expedition was directed against some refractory tribes in Kumaon-Garhwal region with the object of bringing them under Delhi Sultanate. The first attack was a success but when the rainy season set in, the invaders suffered terribly.

Muhummad Bin Tughlaq
  • Transfer of the capital from Daultabad, earlier known as Devagiri.
  • Introduction of token copper currency to replace gold and silver coins.
  • Unsuccessful expedition to subjugate Quarajal-the region identified as the modern Kulu in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Futile plan to conquer Khurasan and Iraq.
  • Creation of Diwan-i-Kohi
  • Independence of dinar(a gold coin) and adl(a silver coin).
  • Establishment of city of Jahanpanah.
  • Arrival of an envoy from the Chinese ruler, Toghan Timur(1341)

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