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In Southern India, use of iron came after the use of stone. In any case, there were periods of overlappongs in the use of stone, copper, bronze and iron. Our only evidence of the transition from copper-bronze age to the iron age is the monuments like dolmens, cairns, cremolechs. These have been found in wide areas all over India such as Assam, Bihar, Orrisa, Central India, Gujrat and Kashmir. But by far the largest number has been found in south India, in Karnataka and the Decan. These iron monuments appear to have belonged to both pre-historic and historic periods.
Monuments discovered in Hyderabad, Mysore, Tinnevelly district, Coimbatore, Malaba, Penumbur etc. also show varied stages of development. Neolithic, Microlithic tools along with copper, bronze and iron implements have been discovered, making it difficult to identify the actual period of transition from copper-bronze age to iron age. At this stage of our limited knowledge, no definite conclusion in this regard can be arrived at. Iron age is usually associated with the Painted Grey Ware.
Painted Grey Ware (PGW) :It referes to the ceramics which have been fired grey and then painted with black designs. The name chosen is highly misleading and can lead many beginners to think this, as a type, which is painted with grey colour. The grey colour, it is believed, is obtained by firing thin clay pots to as high as at temperature as 800 degree celcius.
|Pre Historic Findings
- Bhimbetka - Homo Sapiens' Cave 500 painted Rock Shelters
- Nevasa - Evidence of cotton
- Atranjikheda - Textile printing
- Hastinapur - Wild Sugarcane
- Inamgaon - Statue of mother goddness
- Mehargarh - Earliest evidence of agriculture
- Koldihva - Earliest evidence of rice
- Bagor and Adamgarh - Earliest evidences of Domestication of animal
- Chirand - Serpant cult
- Burzahom Gulfkral - Pit-dwelling