Errors in Measurement
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The errors in measurement can be broadly classified as
- Systematic errors
- Random error.
- Systematic errors : the errors that tend to be in one direction, either positive or negative are known as systematic errors. Following are sources of systematic errors
- Instrumental errors : arise due to imperfect design or calibration of the calibration instrument, zero errors in the instrument
- imperfection : in experimental technique, procedure
- personal error : arise due to lack of proper setting of the apparatus or individuals attention
- Random errors : The errors which occur irregularly and hence a random with respect to sign and size are known as random errors. These can arise due to random and unpredictable fluctuations in experimental conditions
- Least count error : the errors which are associated with the resolution of the instrument known as least count error. Least count error belongs to the category of random errors but within a limited size; it occurs with both systematic and then errors. The smallest division on the scale of the measuring instrument is called least count error
- Absolute error : The magnitude of the difference between the true value of the quantity and the individual measurement value is called the absolute error of the measurement. The absolute error is always positive
- Relative error : is the ratio of the mean absolute error to the mean value of the quantity measured.
- Percentage error : When the relative error is expressed in percent, it is called percentage error to split