The Copper Phase
More than forty hoards consisting of rings, celts, hatches, swords, harpoons, spearheads and human-like figures have been found in a wide area ranging from West Bengal and Orrisa in the East to Gujrat and Haryana in the West, and from Andhra Pradesh in the south to Uttar Pradesh in North. The largest hoard comes from Gungeria in Madhya Pradesh; it contains 424 copper tools and weapons and 102 thin sheets of silver objects. But nearly half of the copper hoards are concentrated in the Ganga-Yamuna doab.
All the implements of the copper hoards supplemented by stone tools led a settled life, and were one of the earliest Chalcolithic agriculturists and artisans to settle in a good portion of the doab.
- Stretched from North-West to East and upto Tamil Nadu
- Black copper has been found at these sites
- It continued upto 1500 BC
- Chief Area - Gangetic Valley
- Chief Sites - Gungeria (MP), Saibia (UP), Bithur (UP), Visauli (UP), Rajpur Parsu (UP)
Pottery : This period was marked by two types of pottery: Ochre-Coloured Pottery which can be roughly placed between 2000 BC-1500 BC on the scientific dating and Black and Red pottery from about 1000 BC.
Ochre-Coloured Pottery (OCP): A new pottery type was discovered during excavatings at Badaun and Bijnor in Uttar Pradesh in 1950. It was called Ochre Coloured (OCP) as it contained a wash of ochre. The colour of the pottery ranges from orange to red. The Chalcolithic sites with such type of ware are ascribed to OCP culture. The period covered by the OCP culture is roughly placed between 2000 BC and 1500 BC. The Black and Red Ware (BRW) followed the OCP.
Black and Red Ware (BRW) : Excavations of Atranjikheda in Uttar Pradesh in the 1960s brought to light a distinct pottery. The pottery, called the BRW, is sandwiched between the OCP and the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) of Iron Age or the Early Vedic Age.