Conquest of Mysore
The First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-1769) : The English were Conscious of Hyder Ali's increasing power in the south. Therefore, they joined hands with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas, who were also jealous of Hyder's growing strength. The English forces attacked Mysore simultaneously from Bombay and Madras. But they were defeated by Hyder and forced to sign the Treaty of Madras in 1769. Under this treaty, both sides restored each other's conquest and promised mutual help in case of attack by a third party. When Hyder Ali was attacked by the Marathas in 1771, the English, according to the promise they had made, did not come to former's help. This led Hyder Ali to distrust and dislike them.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) : In 1778, English in India seized the French settlements including Mahe, a port which was very useful to Hyder Ali for the entry of supplies. He promoted Hyder Ali to declare war. He inflicted a severe defeat on the English forces compelling them to flee Madras with French assistance. The port of Kadnoor was captured.
Luckily for the English, Hyder Ali died in December 1782. He was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan who carried on the war and captured the Fort of Badnur in 1783. The second Anglo-Mysore war, in which the English forces were led by Sir Eyre Coote, ended inconclusively with the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784. Under this treaty both parties agreed to return the conquered land of each other.
| Highlights of the Reigns of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan
- Hyder become the Sultan of Mysore after the death of Nanjaraj, who had usurped power reducing its king Chikka Krishna Raj (belonging to the Wodeyar dynasty)
- He took steps to train his army on European lines and preferred infantry to equestrian troops.
- He set up a modern artillery.
- He won Sera, Hoskote, Dod, Bellapur, Nandidurg, Gudi and Sunda
- Introduction of a new system of coinage, new scales of weights and measures.
- Improvisations in the fields of agriculture, trade and commerce.
- Abandonment of the custom of giving jagirs and reduction in the hereditary possessions of the poligars.
- Missions to France and Constantinople to manage some aid for the state but without success.
- Organisations and training to army on European line; Arming the infantry with rifles.
- Attempt to establish a navy on modern line for which two dockyards were established.
- Check on the jagirdars and poligars by reducing the jagirs
- Collection of many books on diverse subjects and setting up a big library
- Support to the French soldiers in setting up a Jacobin club in Serinagpatnam in 1797.
- Setting up of a Board of Admiralty
- Grant of funds for the repair of Sringeri Temple and installations of the image of Goddess Sharda.
The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792) : War between the two again began in 1789 and ended with Tipu's defeat in 1792. Even though, Tipu fought with exemplary bravery, Lord Cornwallis, the then Governor General, had succeeded through shrewd diplomacy in isolating him by winning over the Marathas, the Nizam, and the rulers of Travancore and Coorg.
The Third Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Srirangapatam in March, 1792. Tipu Sultan had lost half of his territory as a result of Third Mysore War and was burning with revenge. He wanted to get back his territory and, to achieve that objective, he carried on negotiations with the French and Zanuam Shah of Kabul.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799) : After making Subsidiary Alliance with the Nizam, Wellesley asked Tipu Sultan to accept the same but he refused. This led to war, Mysore was attacked from two sides. The main army under General Harris supported by Nizam's subsidiary force under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east, while another army advanced from Bombay. Tipu died defending Serinagpattam in 1799, making the English the master of Mysore. As a matter of formality, prince Krishna, a boy of the Wodeyar family, was placed on the throne and a subsidiary alliance was imposed.
|Treaties signed by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan
- Treaty of Madras, 1769, restored the conquered territories to their respective owners
- Treaty of Manglore, 1784, restored the conquered territories mutually and liberated war prisoners.
- Treaty of Srirangapatanam, 1792, was signed by Tipu Sultan by which he had to cede half of his territory to the Company and paid a huge war reparation.