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Towards the end of the Neolithic period began the use of metals. Firt metal to be used was copper and the culture of that time is called Chalcolithic cultre. The earliest settlements belonging to this phase are extended from the Chhotanagpur plateau to the copper Gangetic basin. Some sites are found at Brahmagiri near Mysore and Navada Toli on the Narmada.
The transition from use of stone to the use of metals is slow and long drawn. There is no doubt that there was an overlapping period when both stone and metals were used. This is proved by the close resemblance of metallic tools and implements with those made of stone. The Chalcolithic i.e. copper bronze age or stone-copper age of India produced a splendid civilisation in the Indus Valley which spread in the neighbouring regions.
Occupation: Their economy was based on subsistence agricultre, stock-raising, hunting and fishing. Their tools consisted of a specialised blade and flake of silicious material like chalcedony and chert. Copper and bronze tools were present in a limited number. The culture shares the common characteristic of painted pottery.
Burial Practices: Another striking feature was the burial practice of the dead. The dead were buried in north-south position in Maharashtra but in east-west position in south India. In eastern India, only a fraction of population buried their dead.
|Chalcolithic Settlement Pattern
- Largest - Diamabad
- Town features at Diamabad and Inamagaon
- Town Planning - Inamgaon
- Fortification - Nagada, Inamgaon, Diamabad, Balathal
- Baked Brick Evidence - Gilund
- Stone Dwellings - Ahar
- Chiefly circular and rectangular houses have been found
- Microliths have been found from Ahar
- Flat, Rectangular copper axe have been found frm Jorwey and Chandoli
- Chief Crop Barley
- Evidence of Rice has been found from Inamgaon
- Fire Altars and Fire Worksip were prevalent
- Inner Funeral System
- North South direction of burials
- East West direction of burials were prevalent in South India
About Pottery and Types
|Ahar ||Red Ware |
|Kayatha ||Deep Red Ware |
|Malwa ||Deep Brown & Black |
|Saalda ||Pictographic (Red & Black) |
|Jorwe ||Pictographic (Red & Black) |
|Prabhas ||Pictographic (Red & Black) |
|Rangpur ||Polished Red |