Balban (1266-1287 AD)
Ghiyasuddin Balban ascended the throne in Feburary 1266. He first executed the survivors of the Chalisa and relieved himself of the dangers of rivalry. He suppressed with an iron hand the hillmen whose forays were a terror in the subrubs of Delhi. He cleared the forests around Delhi and 'at an sacrifice of 100,000 men turned a haunt of busg-rangers into a peaceable agricultural district.' He freed the roads from brigands by killing and burning without mercy.
He built forts and established Afghan garrisons to guard communications with Bengal. The titles of Turkish Khans for vast estates were strickly examined and he took back the lands from which no adequate military service was received and thus, reduced the power of the nobles. He maintained pomp and dignity at his court.
- Declaration that the Sultan was the representative of God on earth-forwarding the Iranian Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
- Introduction of the practice of sijda (under this practice, people would kneel and touch the ground with their head to gree the Sultan) and pabos.
- End of the influence of Chalisa
- Ereation of the department of military affairs (Diwan-i-arz)
- Abollition of the post of naik
- Royal instruction to the ulemas to confine themselves to religious affairs.