Babur (1526-1530) Facts
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Babur (1526-1530) Facts:
Babur was the first Mughal Emperor of India. He was born in Ferghana (1483), Central Asia, in the princely family of mixed Mongol and Turkish blood. Failure to record his father's land caused him to turn reluctantly to South-East. After defeating Ibrahim Lodhi with the support of Punjab's Governor, Daulat Khan Lodhi, Babur turned his attention to the Rajput confederacy and defeated Mewar ruler Rana Sanga in the Battle Of Khanwa in 1527. This victory secured Babur's position in the Delhi Agra region.
Babur's reign ended in 1530 and was succeeded by his son Humayun.
| Reaons of Babur's Indian Expeditions
There were various reasons for the Babur's Indian expedition
- The Ottomans defeated the Safavids and the Uzbegs controlled Transoxiana forcing Babur's Imperial impulses towards India
- Meagre income of Kabul
- Desire to emulate Timur
- Punjab was part of Timurid province and hence was considered a legal partrimony of Timurids
Babur's five famous expeditions :-
- First expedition : In 1519, he stormed Bajaur which fell after a spirited struggle in which Babur's artillery played a decisive part.
Babur quit India, leaving Bhira in the charge of Hindu beg; but the later was soon (1519) expelled by the natives.
- Second expedition : The same year, in September, Babur again marched through the Khyber, in order to subdue the Yusufzai and make Peshawar fort as a base for future operations in Hindustan. But he was recalled by disturbing news from Badakhshan.
- Third expedition : For the third time Babur marched in 1520, through Bajaur towards Bhira. Subduing the recalcitrant Afghan tribes on the way, he proceeded to Sialkot, which submitted without striking a blow.
After two unsuccessful efforts Babur finally acquired Khandahar, in 1522, through the treachery of its governor, Maulana Abdul Bagi. Shah Beg established himself in Sidh, and Kamran (Babur's second son) was put in charge of Kandhar.
- Fourth expedition : Thus, thoroughly secure at home, Babur for the fourth time invaded India, in 1524.Daulat Khan, Governor of the Punjab, was growing very powerful. Sultan Ibrahim had summoned him to Delhi. But Daulat Khan offered him by not appearing in person. To protect himself from Sultan's wrath, Dault Khan sent his son Dilawar khan, to invite Babur to dethrone Ibrahim Lodhi in favour of his uncle Alam Khan.(or Ala-ud-din)
Daulat Khan and his second son, Ghazi Khan, fled to the hills, only to return in the wake of Babur's withdrawal. They recaptured Sultanpur from Dilawar, and Dipalpur from Alam Khan. Ibrahim's attempt to subdeu Daulat Khan proved unsuccessful. But Babur's Lahor de-attachment inflicted a defeat upon him.
On account of this unsettled state, Alam Khan and once again sought Babur's aid to seat himself on the throne of Delhi. In return Babur was promised sovereignty over Lahore and the West Punjab .
Alam Khan returned to Delhi with his understanding. But the wily Daulat won him over. The two Khans accordinly marched on Delhi, only to be disgracefully routed by the Sultan.
- Fifth expedition : Babur now crossed the frontier for the last time (November, 1525), with the largest army he had ever led into the Hindustan. Humayun was with him with the contigent from Badakhshan. Crossing the Jhelum, the Lahore are also joined him. All told, his followers numbers not more than 12,000 of whom only 8000 were effectives.
However, Daulat Khan's forces melted away at Babur's mere approach. Babur has nothing more to do with him than upbraid him for his treacherous conduct. Death soon snatched away Daulat Khan altogether from the field.
On February 26, 1526, Humayun won his regions for the first time, against an advanced division of the Imperial forces. Ibrahim was coming from Delhi, and Babur from Sirhind and Ambala. On April 1, again Babur's men encountered a cavalry division of the Sultan and crossed it. From April, 12 to 19, one full week the two armies faced each other, with little action, near Panipat, the plane intended by nature to be the battle-fields.
| Important Battles Fought By Babur
- Battle Of Panipat (1526) : He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. This was his fifth expedition in India in which he was successful.
- Battle of Khanwa (1527) : He defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar
- Battle of Chanderi (1528) : Barbur defeated Medini Rai. He was the first to entitle himself as the 'Padshah'. After the Kushanas, he was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire.
- Battle of Ghaghra (1529) : He fought against the Allied forces of Afghans in Bihar and Bengal. Sultan Nusrat Shah of Bengal faced crushing defeat.
| Architectural development by Babur
He built two mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other at Sambhal in Rohilkhand.