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Indus Valley Civilisation


                                   

   

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Indus Script In 1924, scholars in history were roused by the announcement of Sir John Marshall that his Indian aides, particularly R.D.Banerjee , discovered (1922-23) at Mohenjo-daro in the Larkana district of Sind, now in Pakistan, the remains of a civilisation, one of the oldest of the world. A few hundred miles towards the north of Mohenjo-daro, four or five superimposed cities were excavated at Harappa in the Montgomery district of the Punjab, now in Pakistan. That the civilisation was not confined to the limits of the Indus Valley can be understood from the finds of relics of the same civilisation at the Sutkagendor on the sea board of the south Baluchistan, in the west of Alamgirpur in the Uttar Pradesh in the east.

Until the discovery of the remains of the Indus Civilisation, it was believed by scholars that the history of India practically began with the coming of the Aryans. But this theory is an exploded one and the pre-historic civilisation of India, that is, the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Name of Sites Year of Excavation Excavators Region/River Features
Harappa 1921 Daya Ram Sahni Montgomery district of Punjab (Now in Pak) on the left bank of Ravi
  1. City followed grid planning
  2. Row of six granaries
  3. Only place having evidences of coffin burial
  4. Evidence of fractional burial and coffin burial
  5. Cemetery-H of alien people.
Mohenjo-daro 1922 R.D.Banarjee Larkana district in Sind on the right bank of Indus(Now in Pak)
  1. City followed grid planning
  2. A large granary and Great Bath, a college
  3. Human skeletons showing invasiona and massacre.
  4. Evidence of Horse come from superficial level.
  5. A piece of woven cotton alongwith spindle whorls and needles
  6. Town was flooded more then seven times.
Chanhu-daro 1931 N. Gopal Majumdar, Mackey Situtated in Sind on the bank of Indus
  1. The city has no citadal
  2. Famous for bead makers shop
  3. A small pot, possibly an inkpot
  4. Foot prints of a dog chasing a cat
  5. Three different cultural layers, Indus,Jhukar and Jhangar
Kalibangan 1953 A. Ghosh Situated in Rajasthan on the Bank of Ghaggar
  1. Shows both Pre Harappan and Harappan phase
  2. Evidence of furrowed land
  3. Evidence of seven fire altars and camel bones
  4. Many houses had their own well
  5. Kalibangan stand for black bangles
  6. Evidence of wooden furrow
Lothal 1953 S.R. Rao Situated in Gujarat on Bhogava river near Gulf of Cambay
  1. A titled floor which bears intersecting design of circles
  2. Remains of rice husk
  3. Evidence of horse from a terracotta figurine
  4. A ship designed on a seal
  5. Beads & trade ports
  6. An instrument for measuring angles,pointing to modern day compass
Banwali 1974 R.S. Bisht Situated in Hissar district of Haryana
  1. Shows both Pre-Harappan and Harppan phase
  2. Good quantity of barley found here
Surkotada 1964 J.P. Joshi Situated in Kutch (Bhuj) district of Gujarat
  1. Bones of horses, Bead making shops
Sutkagendor 1927 Stein, R.L. Situated in Baluchistan on Dast River
  1. Trade point between Harappa and Babylon, belong to mature phase
  2. Evidence of horse
Amri 1935 N.G. Majumdar Situated in Sind on the bank of Indus
  1. Evidence of antelope
Dholavira 1985-90 R.S. Bisht Situated in Gujarat in Rann of Kutch
  1. Seven cultural stages
  2. Largest site
  3. Three party of city
  4. Unique water management
Rangpur 1953 M.S. Vats, B.B. Lal & S.R. Rao Situated on the bank of Mahar in Gujarat
  1. Rice was cultivated
Kot Diji 1953 Fazal Ahmed Situated on the bank of Indus
  1. Wheel made painted pottery
  2. Traces of defensive wall and well aligned streets
  3. Knowledge of metallurgy, artistic toys etc
Ropar 1953 Y.D. Sharma Situated in Punjab of the banks of Sutlej
  1. Evidence of burying a dog below the human bural
  2. One example of rectangular mudbrick chamber was noticed
  3. Five fold cultures - Harappan, PGW, NBP, Kushana - Gupta and Medieval
Balakot 1963-76 George F Dales Situated on the Arabian Sea
  1. Remain of pre Harappan and Harappan civilisation
  2. The mounds rise to the height of about 9.7mts and are spread 2.8 sq hectare of area
Alamgirpur 1958 Y.D. Sharma Situated on Hindon in Ghaziabad
  1. The impression of cloth on a trough is discovered
  2. Usually considered to be the eastern boundary of the Indus culture



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